1. I’m not surprised he is late again: he never appears _____ at mealtime.
2. I won’t consider _____ my job at this time.
B. to quit
D. to quitting
A new study shows that bilingual speakers’ ability to speak a second language is improved after they have consumed a low dose of alcohol.
It is well-established that alcohol damages cognitive and motor functions. “Executive functions”, which include the ability to remember, pay attention, and prevent improper behaviors, are particularly sensitive to the effects of alcohol. While alcohol increases self-confidence and reduces social anxiety, both of which might be expected to improve language ability, especially, the ability to speak a second language, when interacting with another person.
An experimental study was to test these competing predictions for the first time. The researchers tested the effects of a low dose of alcohol on participants’ self-rated and observer-rated ability to converse in Dutch. Participants were 50 native German speakers who were studying at a Dutch University (Maastricht) and had recently learned to speak, read and write in Dutch.
Participants bought randomly either a low dose of alcohol or a control beverage that contained no alcohol, before they chatted with an experimenter in Dutch for a few minutes. The exact dose of alcohol varied depending on participants’ body weight, but it was equivalent to just under a pint (460 ml) of 5% beer, for a 70kg male.
The researchers found that participants who had consumed alcohol had significantly better observer-ratings for their Dutch language, specifically better pronunciation, compared to those who had not consumed alcohol. However, alcohol had no effect on self-ratings of Dutch language skills.
Dr Jessica Werthmann who was one of the researchers, said “We need to be cautious about the implications of these results until we know more about what causes the observed results. One possible reason could be the anxiety-reducing effect of alcohol. But more research is needed to test this.”
21. What languages could the participants speak in the study?
A. English and Dutch.
B. English and German.
C. German and Dutch.
D. German and French.
22. When did the bilingual participants’ second language get improved?
A. After they have drunk some beverage.
B. After they have drunk a little alcohol.
C. After they have drunk much beverage.
D. After they have drunk plenty of alcohol.
23. Which one will be LEAST affected by the effect of alcohol among “executive functions”?
A. The ability to remember.
B. The ability to focus on things.
C. The ability to inhibit improper behaviors.
D. The ability to talk.
24. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. A low dose of alcohol will limit the ability to speak a second language.
B. Alcohol will increase self-confidence.
C. Alcohol will reduce social anxiety.
D. Alcohol will improve ability to speak a second language.
25. What is the main idea of the text?
A. The researchers intend to prove the effects of a low dose of alcohol on Germans’ self-rated and observer-rated ability to talk in Dutch.
B. Participants drank randomly a low dose of alcohol or soft drink, before they spoke Dutch.
C. The study shows that alcohol consumption has positive effects on the pronunciation of a second language in people who recently learn that language.
D. Participants who buy a low dose of alcohol have significantly better observer-ratings for their second language, but more research is needed to test this.
Markets are changing at an accelerating rate. Industry boundaries are blurring. Companies more than ever need quick and reliable intelligence about their customers, competitors, distributors and products. More companies are recognizing the prescient wisdom in Piter Drucker’s observation that “ the customer is the business”.
Then, where is marketing headed in the new era? Here are the major developments in the evolving marketplace or marketspace:
There has been substantial disintermediation of wholesalers and retailers owing to electronic commerce (E-commerce). Virtually all products are now available without going to a shop. The customer can access pictures of any product on the Internet, read the specification, shop among online vendors for the best prices and terms, and click order and payment over the Internet.
Expensively printed catalogues have disappeared. Business-to-business purchasing over the Internet has increased even faster than online customer buying. Business purchasing agents shop for routine items on the Internet, either advertising their needs and waiting for bidders or simply surfing in their “bookmarked” web sites.
Shop-based retailers find shop traffic highly diminished. In response, more entrepreneurial retailers are building entertainment and theatre into their shops. Many book shops, food shops and clothes shops now include coffee bars and feature lectures and performances. Essentially these shops are marketing an “experience” rather than a product assortment.
Most companies have built proprietary customer databases containing rich information on individual customer preferences and requirements. They use this information to “mass customize” their offerings (products, services, systems and programs) to individuals.
An increasing number of companies present online product platforms on which customers design products to suit their own specifications. Many automobile, computer, domestic appliances and food companies invite customers to visit their web page and design the market offering by filing in choices on a form. The modified product is then displayed on the screen.
Businesses are doing a better job of retaining customers through finding imaginative ways to exceed customer expectations. As a result, competitors find it increasingly difficult to acquire new customers and most companies are spending time figuring out how to sell more products and services to their existing customers.
Companies are focusing on building customer share rather than market share. Many have thought up new ways to increase cross-selling and up-selling. Companies are gaining segment and customer insight from their datawarehouses by applying newer and more effective datamining techniques.
Companies have finally managed to persuade their accounting departments to generate real numbers on profitability by individual customer, product and channel and are now focusing their attention on these. They are formulating reward packages and incentives for their more profitable customers.
Companies have switched from a transaction perspective to a customer loyalty-building perspective. Many have moved to customer lifetime supply thinking, whereby they offer to deliver a regularly consumed product ( for example, coffee ) on a regular basis at a lower price per unit.
Most companies now outsource over 60 per cent of their activities and requirements. A few outsource 100 per cent, making them virtual companies owning very few assets and therefore earning extraordinary rates of return.
Many field salespeople are franchisees rather than company employees. The company equips them with the latest sales automation tools, enabling them to develop individualized multimedia presentations and customized market offerings and contracts.
Most buyers prefer to meet salespeople on their computer screen rather than in their office.
More and more personal selling is occurring over electronic media where the buyer and seller see each other on their computer screens in real time. And the most effective sales people are well informed, trustworthy, likeable and good at listening.
Mass TV advertising has greatly diminished as a result of 500 viewing channels. On the other hand, marketers can now reach their target markets more effectively by advertising through specialized online magazines and newspapers.
Companies are unable to sustain competitive advantages. Competitors are quick to copy any advantage through benchmarking, reverse engineering and leapfrogging. Companies believe that their only sustainable advantage lies in an ability to learn faster and change faster.
For any company, the key to competitive success is to keep its marketing changing as fast as its marketplace. The most successful companies are already marketing their products as if we lived in 2025.
31. The underlined word “prescient” in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ____________.
32. There has been substantial disintermediation of wholesalers and retailers owing to electronic commerce (E-commerce). The sentence suggests that ____________.
A. there have been few intermediaries between wholesalers and retailer today as a result of E-commerce
B. many wholesalers and retailers are no longer working as market intermediaries as a result of E-commerce
C. there has been no need for intermediaries between wholesalers and retailers as a result of E-commerce
D. wholesalers and retailers have been selling products directly to consumers as a result of E-commerce
33. According to the passage, shop-based retailers find shop traffic highly diminished, which suggests that shop-based retailers ____________.
A. believe that there is much less traffic outside their shops
B. feel much sad about shop traffic
C. have discovered that their shop vehicles have substantially declined in number
D. have found that there has been a significant decline in their shop business
34. The underlined phrase “a product assortment” in Paragraph 5 means ____________.
A. a great variety of products
B. different products in the same category
C. a product line
D. a well-known brand
35. According to the passage, most companies are seeking to meet the individualized needs by building ____________.
A. customer databases accessible to the general public
B. customer databases accessible only to their customers
C. exclusively-owned customer databases
D. jointly-owned customer databases
36. According to the passage, “competitors find it increasingly difficult to acquire new customers”, because ____________.
A. other companies are presenting online product platforms
B. other businesses are creatively making their market offerings better than expected by customers.
C. other companies have more imaginative ways to design their products
D. other businesses are doing better in datamining
37. Which of the following statements about companies increasing cross-selling and up-selling is TRUE?
A. Many companies have worked out new methods to increase sales not only to other businesses engaged in the same business line but also to those engaged in upstream industries.
B. Many companies have worked out new methods to increase sales to regular customers as well as upper-end customers.
C. Many companies have worked out new methods to increase sales to customers both at home and abroad.
D. Many companies have worked out new methods to increase sales to both companies engaged in B-to-B selling and those producing higher-end products.
38. What does the author of the passage mean by saying “most companies now outsource over 60 per cent of their activities and requirements”?
A. today, most companies arrange for their in-house people to do some work and provide over 60% of the required services and goods
B. today, most companies arrange for people outside the company to do some work and provide over 60% of the required services and goods
C. today, most companies are employing more staff to do some work so as to be able to provide over 60% of the required services and goods
D. today, most companies do some work on their own and provide over 60% of the required services and goods by forming alliances with other businesses
39. According to the passage, today, many field salespeople are no longer working as employees of a particular company, as they are ____________.
B. patent holders
C. selling under franchise
40. Which of the following best reflects the central idea of the passage?
A. The market is changing constantly.
B. The key to competitive success is to keep our marketing changing as fast as our marketplace.
C. Big data are changing the way for businesses to compete in the market.
D. E-commerce is changing our marketing strategies.
41. This is particularly true in Japan, where companies traditionally have a policy of promotion by seniority.
A. barriers to technical trade
B. technical barriers to trade
C. barriers to trade in technology
D. technological barriers to trade
医疗翻译中我们会遇到患者病例或影像学检查报告单里出现“平扫”二字，但是机器翻译引擎很多都翻译的是 plain scan。那病例中的“平扫”“增强”应该怎么翻译?